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Foreign Direct Investment Vs Foreign Portfolio Investor

11 Mins 03 Apr 2023 0 COMMENT

Investment of money is vital for the growth of an economy and each country encourages domestic industries to invest in various facets of economic growth. However, sometimes the domestic investment is not sufficient to achieve the desired level of growth. Hence, these countries invite foreign investors to invest in their country, who brings additional capital. These investors use two methods to invest namely foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment.

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is an investment made by a foreign company or an individual in a foreign country with the intention of establishing a long-term business interest. In FDI, the investor acquires a controlling interest in a foreign company by purchasing at least 10% of the company's shares. This gives the investor a say in the management of the company, and the investment is made with the objective of establishing a long-term business interest in the foreign country.

FDI can take several forms, including mergers and acquisitions, greenfield investments, and joint ventures. Mergers and acquisitions involve the purchase of an existing company or merging with a local company to establish a new company. Greenfield investments involve the establishment of a new company in a foreign country. Joint ventures involve partnering with a local company to establish a new company.

FDI has several advantages. Firstly, it helps create jobs, transfer technology, and know-how, and boost the economy of the host country. Secondly, FDI provides a stable source of investment capital and enhances the competitive advantage of local companies by introducing new business practices and technology. Thirdly, FDI allows investors to access the local market, which may not be accessible through other forms of investment.

FDI, however, has some disadvantages. Firstly, it involves a significant investment in infrastructure, plant, and equipment, which may be costly. Secondly, FDI is subject to political, economic, and regulatory risks in the host country. Thirdly, FDI is a long-term investment, and the investor may not see returns on investment for several years.

Foreign Portfolio Investment (FPI)

Foreign Portfolio Investment (FPI) is an investment made by foreign investors in foreign securities, such as stocks, bonds, and other financial assets. Unlike FDI, FPI does not involve the acquisition of a controlling interest in the company. FPI is a short-term investment, with investors buying and selling securities based on short-term market trends.

FPI can take several forms, including equity investments, debt investments, and other investments such as mutual funds, exchange-traded funds, and real estate investment trusts. Equity investments involve buying shares in foreign companies. Debt investments involve buying bonds issued by foreign governments or companies.

FPI advantage is that it provides diversification of investment portfolios, reducing risk exposure. FPI allows investors to participate in the growth of foreign economies without the need for a long-term commitment. FPI provides liquidity, as investors can buy and sell securities quickly.

FPI, however, has some disadvantages. Firstly, it is subject to the volatility of the financial markets and can be affected by currency fluctuations, interest rates, and other macroeconomic factors. Secondly, FPI does not provide the same level of control as FDI, and investors have no say in the management of the companies in which they invest. Thirdly, FPI does not promote economic growth, job creation, or technology transfer in the host country.

Difference between FDI and FPI

Though both of these looks alike in terms of accessing a foreign market, both of these terms have few differences as mentioned below.

  1. Level of control: In FDI, the investor acquires a controlling interest in a foreign company by purchasing at least 10% of the company's shares. This gives the investor a say in the management of the company. In FPI, the investor does not have any control over the company's management, and the investment is subject to the performance of the financial markets.
  2. Investment horizon: FDI is a long-term investment, while FPI is a short-term investment. FDI is usually a strategic investment, as it allows the investor to have a long-term interest in the company and access the local market. In contrast, FPI is subject to short-term market trends, and investors buy and sell securities based on short-term market movements.
  3. Purpose of investment: FDI is typically made to establish a long-term business interest in a foreign country. This includes setting up a manufacturing facility, acquiring a local company, or establishing a joint venture. FPI is typically made to diversify investment portfolios, participate in the growth of foreign economies, and take advantage of short-term market opportunities.
  4. Risks: FDI involves higher risks than FPI. FDI requires a significant investment in infrastructure, plant, and equipment. It is also subject to political, economic, and regulatory risks in the host country. FPI, on the other hand, is subject to the volatility of the financial markets and can be affected by currency fluctuations, interest rates, and other macroeconomic factors.

In conclusion, FDI and FPI are two different types of investments that involve investing in foreign countries. FDI involves a long-term commitment to establish a business interest in the foreign country, while FPI is a short-term investment that aims to diversify investment portfolios and participate in the growth of foreign economies. Investors should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of both types of investments before investing their money.

 

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