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What is Share Market & How it Works?

4 Mins 23 May 2023 0 COMMENT

The share market can be compared to a bustling marketplace, where buyers and sellers come together to trade ownership in companies. Just as vendors in a marketplace offer various goods and products for sale, companies offer shares of their ownership to investors in the share market.

What is Share Market?

The share market, also known as the stock market or equity market, is a trading platform where the stocks of publicly traded companies are bought and sold. It is a 'bazaar' for investors to buy ownership in companies and for companies to raise funds for their business activities.

The share market works on the principle of supply and demand. When a company decides to go public, it issues shares of stock, which are bought by investors. As the company grows and becomes more profitable, its stock value increases, and investors can sell their shares for a profit.

Types of Share Market

The "primary" share market refers to the platform where companies register themselves and issue shares to raise capital, a process known as "listing". If a company is issuing shares for the first time, it must go through an Initial Public Offering (IPO) process. On the other hand, once the company is listed and shares are issued, the trading occurs in the "secondary" market, where buyers and sellers come together to transact and make a profit.

Based on the financial instrument that is traded, a share market can be classified into an equity market, where stocks are traded through bid and ask-price negotiation, and a derivative market, where trading is executed primarily through futures and options contracts. In both cases, stocks are purchased and sold in large lots.

What is Traded in the stock market?

Shares/Stocks :

Shares or stocks represent ownership in a company. When someone buys a share, they become a shareholder in that company and have a claim on its earnings and assets. Shareholders can sell their shares in the stock market to earn a profit on their investment. The price of shares in the market fluctuates constantly, and this volatility creates opportunities for traders to profit. Stock volumes, or the number of shares available in the market, also play a role in trading.

Derivatives:

Derivatives are financial contracts that allow investors to buy or sell an underlying asset at a predetermined price and date. Futures and options are two types of derivative securities traded on the stock market. A futures contract obligates the holder to buy or sell a certain amount of the underlying asset at a specified price and date. An options contract, on the other hand, provides the holder with the right - but not the obligation - to buy or sell the underlying asset at a predetermined price and date.

Open interest, which refers to the total number of outstanding futures or options contracts, is a key metric in derivative trading. When open interest is low, it indicates that fewer investors are interested in the underlying asset, resulting in lower buy-in rates. 

Bonds:

Bonds are a type of fixed-income investment that represents a loan made by an investor to a borrower. When an investor buys a bond, they are effectively lending money to the issuer. The issuer then pays interest on the bond at a fixed rate until its maturity date, when the bondholder receives their principal investment back. Bonds are considered to be safer than stocks because they provide a predictable return on investment, but they may not be as profitable as equity investments.

Mutual Funds :

A mutual fund pools money from many investors to purchase a portfolio of stocks, bonds, or other securities. Mutual funds offer diversification, making it possible for investors to invest in a range of stocks and bonds, thereby reducing their overall risk. Mutual funds are popular in the Indian stock market because they allow retail investors to participate in the stock market without having to worry about buying individual stocks or bonds.

How to Invest in the share market?

To invest in the share market, you need to open a demat and trading account with a stockbroker. Once you have the accounts, you can research the stocks you wish to invest in and place an order to buy them through your trading account. It is important to keep track of the market and regularly monitor your investments. It is also advisable to diversify your portfolio by investing in a variety of stocks across different sectors. Additionally, it is essential to set realistic investment goals, have a long-term perspective, and not get swayed by short-term market movements. Investors can also get advice from a financial advisor before investing in the stock market.

Why Do Companies Need Shares, and Why Do They Have to List It?

Listing shares on a stock exchange allows companies to access a larger pool of potential investors and raise significant capital. It also provides liquidity to existing shareholders who can sell their shares to other investors in the market. In addition, listing shares creates visibility and credibility for the company, as it must comply with stringent disclosure and reporting requirements.

How to Make Money In a Stock Market?

Making money in the stock market involves buying stocks at a lower price and selling them at a higher price to make a profit. It requires a good understanding of the market, research on potential investments, and the ability to manage risk. Investors can also earn money through dividends, which are a portion of a company's profits distributed to its shareholders.

Conclusion

Investing in the stock market can be a lucrative way to grow your wealth, but it requires careful research, analysis, and patience. It's important to have a diversified portfolio and a long-term investment strategy to mitigate risks and maximize returns. When in doubt, investors can also approach financial experts for additional input.

Disclaimer: ICICI Securities Ltd. (I-Sec). Registered office of I-Sec is at ICICI Securities Ltd. - ICICI Venture House, Appasaheb Marathe Marg, Prabhadevi, Mumbai - 400 025, India, Tel No : 022 - 6807 7100. I-Sec is a Member of National Stock Exchange of India Ltd (Member Code :07730), BSE Ltd (Member Code :103) and Member of Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd. (Member Code: 56250) and having SEBI registration no. INZ000183631. AMFI Regn. No.: ARN-0845. We are distributors for Mutual funds. Mutual Fund Investments are subject to market risks, read all scheme related documents carefully. Name of the Compliance officer (broking): Ms. Mamta Shetty, Contact number: 022-40701022, E-mail address: complianceofficer@icicisecurities.com. Investments in securities markets are subject to market risks, read all the related documents carefully before investing. The contents herein above shall not be considered as an invitation or persuasion to trade or invest.  I-Sec and affiliates accept no liabilities for any loss or damage of any kind arising out of any actions taken in reliance thereon. The contents herein above are solely for informational purpose and may not be used or considered as an offer document or solicitation of offer to buy or sell or subscribe for securities or other financial instruments or any other product. Investors should consult their financial advisers whether the product is suitable for them before taking any decision. The contents herein mentioned are solely for informational and educational purpose.