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NSE India: The Backbone of Indian Capital Markets

10 Mins 19 May 2023 0 COMMENT

A stock exchange is a platform where shares and other financial instruments are bought and sold by investors. It acts as a mediator between buyers and sellers, providing a transparent and regulated marketplace for trading. The National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) is one of the leading stock exchanges in the country, with a wide range of financial instruments, including stocks, bonds, and derivatives, traded on its platform. In this article, we will take a closer look at the functioning and importance of the NSE in the Indian financial system. 

What is NSE?

Headquartered in Mumbai, the NSE was established in 1992 and began its operations in 1994. The exchange offers a fully automated screen-based trading system, which operates on a national scale. The NSE has more than 1,600 companies listed on its platform, and the exchange has a market capitalization of over $3.27 trillion as of January 2023.

The NSE provides a wide range of services to investors, including equity trading, derivatives trading, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and bonds. It has a reputation for being a transparent, efficient, and technologically advanced exchange, which has helped to attract investors from all over the world.

Moreover, the NSE has played a significant role in shaping the Indian financial markets, and it continues to be an important driver of growth and development in the country. It has also been instrumental in promoting investor education and improving corporate governance practices in India.

How Does NSE function?

The NSE functions as a fully automated electronic trading platform, with all trades executed electronically via a unique order matching system, which is based on a time-price priority system. When a buyer and seller submit their orders, the NSE's system matches them based on the price and time priority, and the trade is executed.

The NSE also plays a crucial role in the securities market by providing a range of services, including trading, clearing, and settlement of securities, as well as market data dissemination and surveillance. The exchange operates on a T+1 settlement cycle, which means that trades executed on Monday are settled on Tuesday, and so on.

In addition, the NSE has several trading segments, including Equity, Futures and Options, Currency Derivatives, and Debt, each with its own set of rules and regulations. The exchange also has various market indices, including the Nifty 50, which is the flagship index of the exchange, comprising 50 large-cap stocks from various sectors. Other indices include the Nifty Bank, Nifty IT, Nifty Pharma, and Nifty Midcap 100.

Plus, the NSE also provides a range of services to market participants, including brokers, investors, and issuers. For example, brokers can access the NSE's trading platform through their respective trading terminals, while investors can track market movements, access market data, and execute trades through various channels, such as online trading platforms, mobile apps, and call centres. Issuers, on the other hand, can raise capital through initial public offerings (IPOs) or follow-on public offerings (FPOs) by listing their securities on the exchange.

Overall, the NSE's functioning is based on providing a transparent and efficient platform for market participants to trade in a range of securities, with a strong focus on ensuring the safety and stability of the securities market.

Benefits of listing on NSE

The benefits of listing on NSE are numerous:

  1. A company gets access to a large pool of potential investors, which can increase the liquidity of its shares.
  2. Listing on NSE improves a company's transparency and corporate governance standards, which in turn enhances its reputation and credibility.
  3. Listing on NSE can provide a company with opportunities to raise additional capital through follow-on public offerings or debt issuances.
  4. Companies listed on NSE are subject to greater scrutiny, which can help identify and address any potential issues or shortcomings.
  5. Listing on NSE can increase a company's visibility and help it to gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace.

Major Indices in National Stock Exchange

NSE has several indices that represent different sectors of the Indian economy. Some of the major indices in NSE include:

Nifty 50: The Nifty 50 is the flagship index of the NSE and comprises 50 large-cap stocks across 12 sectors of the Indian economy.

Nifty Next 50: The Nifty Next 50 is the next set of 50 large-cap stocks in the NSE after the Nifty 50.

Nifty Bank: The Nifty Bank represents the banking sector of the Indian economy and includes 12 banking stocks.

Nifty IT: The Nifty IT represents the Information Technology sector and includes 10 IT stocks.

Nifty Pharma: The Nifty Pharma represents the Pharmaceutical sector and includes 10 Pharma stocks.

Nifty FMCG: The Nifty FMCG represents the Fast-Moving Consumer Goods sector and includes 15 FMCG stocks.

Nifty Metal: The Nifty Metal represents the Metals sector and includes 10 metal stocks.


NSE is one of the leading stock exchanges in India with advanced technology, transparency, and various benefits for companies looking to get listed. The major indices of the NSE are widely used by investors and traders as a barometer of the Indian economy. As the Indian market continues to grow, NSE is poised to play a crucial role in the development of the country's financial landscape.

Disclaimer: ICICI Securities Ltd. (I-Sec). Registered office of I-Sec is at ICICI Securities Ltd. - ICICI Venture House, Appasaheb Marathe Marg, Prabhadevi, Mumbai - 400 025, India, Tel No : 022 - 6807 7100. I-Sec is a Member of National Stock Exchange of India Ltd (Member Code :07730), BSE Ltd (Member Code :103) and Member of Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd. (Member Code: 56250) and having SEBI registration no. INZ000183631. Name of the Compliance officer (broking): Ms. Mamta Shetty, Contact number: 022-40701022, E-mail address: complianceofficer@icicisecurities.com. Investments in securities markets are subject to market risks, read all the related documents carefully before investing. The contents herein above shall not be considered as an invitation or persuasion to trade or invest.  I-Sec and affiliates accept no liabilities for any loss or damage of any kind arising out of any actions taken in reliance thereon. Such representations are not indicative of future results. The securities quoted are exemplary and are not recommendatory. The contents herein above are solely for informational purpose and may not be used or considered as an offer document or solicitation of offer to buy or sell or subscribe for securities or other financial instruments or any other product. Investors should consult their financial advisers whether the product is suitable for them before taking any decision. The contents herein mentioned are solely for informational and educational purpose.