Partner With Us NRI

Open Free Demat Account Online with ICICIDIRECT

How to Analyse an IPO


The year 2021 has been a blockbuster year for IPOs. In 2021, 65 companies went public on leading exchanges, and several more were listed on smaller exchanges. It is predicted that 2022 will follow a similar trend. If you want to invest in one, you need to know how to analyse an IPO.

What is an IPO?

Before going into the details of analysing an IPO, you need to know what an IPO is. Here's a rundown of an IPO for beginners:

  • An IPO or an initial public offering is when a company offers its share to the public for the first time and lists its shares on a stock exchange to trade.  
  • Companies go public to raise money for various reasons, including repaying debt, growth and expansion, mergers and acquisitions, etc.
  • You can think of an IPO as a beginning of a new chapter. Whether you want to participate in this new company depends on whether you find value in the IPO.

Components of an IPO

An IPO can be primarily broken down into two parts – Fresh Issue and Offer for Sale.

A Fresh issue is when a company issues new shares and sells them to the general public during the IPO. An Offer for Sale is when existing promoters or investors in the company divest their stake.

It is essential to know the difference between the two because it has a material impact when you analyse an IPO.

A company may also have anchor investors where they sell a block of shares before the official IPO to build the confidence of retail investors. However, shares offered under this scheme have a lock-in period of 30 days.

Additional Read: Can I apply for IPO without a Demat account?

IPO Buying Guide

Now that you understand what an IPO is and how it works, let's get down to the nitty-gritty of analysing an IPO. Here are things to look out for when investing in an IPO:

1.  Reason for going Public

One of the first things to look into is why a company is going public. Is it for growth and expansion, capital expenditure, to pay off debt or simply because it doesn't have enough money to run its day-to-day obligations? If it is the latter, it may not be wise to invest in the IPO. You can find all the information about why a company is going public in its Draft Red Herring Prospectus.

2.  Company Financials

The next thing to look into is whether the company has been generating reasonable returns over the past few years. Dig into the business's revenues, profits, and cash flows to understand its financial health. If its revenues and profits have consistency and an upward trend, it may be considered as a good sign. If they are falling and inconsistent, you need to be careful.

3.  Company Valuation

A company's valuation is its current or projected worth based on its profitability, growth prospects, industry outlook, etc. Before you invest in an IPO of a company, you need to consider its valuation. You can make a fair comparison with its listed peers and see whether the IPO price is justified or not. A company may be reasonably valued, under-valued or over-valued. Under the first two circumstances, there is a chance that your investment will pay off. If a company is overvalued, chances are its prices may drop after it goes public.

4.  Growth Prospects

Once you have analysed the basics of a company, including its purpose for raising funds, financials, and valuation, it may be worth looking at the industry and the company’s growth prospects. You are investing in a company's future. If it has the potential to grow, either organically or inorganically, then chances of your investment growth will also increase.

5.  Subscription

Another valuable metric to consider is how the subscription for the issue is. If a company is undersubscribed, the market does not have enough faith in the company. So it may be wise to stay away. On the other hand, if there is good demand, it may be worth investing in the IPO. But this can’t be the sole factor to decide.

6.  Management Details

Finally, you also need to know the performance history of those at the company's helm. A company's management can dictate the direction in which a company moves. Strong leadership means you can be sure that the company is headed for success.

Additional Read: How to track upcoming initial public offerings (IPOs)


Investing in an IPO can be pretty daunting, especially for the first time. This is why knowing how to analyse an IPO and using a trusted IPO buying guide to do the same can assuage some of those fears. IPOs can be a great way to cash in on a company's growth, if you know what you are doing.

Disclaimer – ICICI Securities Ltd. ( I-Sec). Registered office of I-Sec is at ICICI Securities Ltd. - ICICI Venture House, Appasaheb Marathe Marg, Prabhadevi, Mumbai - 400 025, India, Tel No : 022 - 6807 7100. Please note, IPO related services are not Exchange traded products and I-Sec is acting as a distributor to solicit these products. All disputes with respect to the distribution activity, would not have access to Exchange investor redressal forum or Arbitration mechanism. The contents herein above shall not be considered as an invitation or persuasion to trade or invest.  I-Sec and affiliates accept no liabilities for any loss or damage of any kind arising out of any actions taken in reliance thereon. Investments in securities market are subject to market risks, read all the related documents carefully before investing. The contents herein mentioned are solely for informational and educational purpose.

Most Popular

  • 13 May 2022
  • ICICI Securities

The Five-Point Financial Planning Checklist For Your Family

Whether you just got married or planning to have a baby or have dependents, you should have financial plans for every stage in your life to ensure a secured future for your family members. Here are five things you can do financially for your family.   

  • 12 May 2022
  • ICICI Securities

What is a Zero Coupon Bond?

You get fixed returns in the form of interest until maturity when you invest in a bond. Zero-coupon bonds work a little differently. In this article, find out what zero-coupon bonds are, their advantages and whether you should invest in them. 

  • 12 May 2022
  • ICICI Securities

What are Cross Currency Pairs?

The forex market is the largest financial market globally. Currency trading is a lucrative and booming business. While most currencies trading happens in relation to the US Dollar, some don’t. That forms the basis of cross currency pairs. Here’s what you need to know about it. 

  • 12 May 2022
  • ICICI Securities

Investing principles from Benjamin Graham: The Father of Value Investing

Benjamin Graham was a British born economist, professor, and investor who taught at Columbia University. He was also a mentor to some of the most famous investors of the 20th century, including Irving Khan, John Templeton, & Warren Buffett. Buffett called him "the second most influential figure in his life, only after my father". 

  • 12 May 2022
  • ICICI Securities

How to Invest in Nifty 50?

The Nifty 50 is the benchmark index of the National Stock Exchange. It represents the 50 largest companies listed in India. Investing in the Nifty 50 can be a good idea for those looking to make index-linked returns. Here’s how you can invest in the index. 

  • 12 May 2022
  • ICICI Securities

Investment philosophy of Cathie Wood: The most powerful woman on Wall Street

Catherine Duddy Wood, also called Cathie Wood, is an investor who primarily invests in disruptive technologies and is the founder, chief executive officer, and chief investment officer of ARK Investment Management, LLC, an investment management firm mostly active in the United States.

  • 11 May 2022
  • ICICI Securities

How to Use Technology to Improve Your Finances

Technology has made life simpler for everyone. In the realm of personal finance, technology has streamlined many processes—from budgeting to automating your payments. On National Technology Day, let’s look at how technology has transformed our finances. 

  • 11 May 2022
  • ICICI Securities

How to Invest in your Every Goal with Mutual Funds?

Each of us is unique. We have different needs and goals in life. Some of us can ride along swinging markets, while some may need a relatively conservative investment tool. 

  • 11 May 2022
  • ICICI Securities

Four Reasons Why Entrepreneurs should Invest in Equity Mutual Funds

Equity mutual funds provide growth opportunities not just for individual investors but also for entrepreneurs and corporates. They make excellent investments for anyone looking for wealth creation. This article will give you four reasons why businesspeople should consider investing in equity mutual funds.